Al-Maweri SA, Tarakji B, Al-Sufyani GA, Al-Shamiri HM , Gazal G. Lip and oral lesions in children with Down syndrome. A controlled study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2015;7(2):e284-8.





1. Macho V, Coelho A, Areias C, Macedo P, & Andrade D. Craniofacial features and specific oral characteristics of Down syndrome children. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2014;13:408-11.


2. Scully C, van Bruggen W, Diz Dios P, Casal B, Porter S, Davison MF. Down syndrome: lip lesions (angular stomatitis and fissures) and Candida albicans. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:37-40.


3. Hennequin M, Faulks D, Veyrune JL, Bourdiol P. Significance of oral health in persons with Down syndrome: A literature review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999;41:275 83.


4. Oredugba FA. Oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of Nigerian individuals with Down syndrome. Downs Syndr Res Pract. 2007;12;72-6.


5. Shore S, Lightfoot T, Ansell P. Oral disease in children with Down syndrome: Causes and prevention. Community Pract.2010;83:18 21.


6. Al-Sufyani GA, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Ghashm AA, Al-Soneidar WA. Oral hygiene and gingival health status of children with Down syndrome in Yemen: A cross-sectional study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2014;4:82-6.
PMid:25254190 PMCid:PMC4170549


7. Barankin B, Guenther L. Dermatological manifestations of Down's syndrome. J Cutan Med Surg. 2001;5:289-93.


8. Daneshpazhooh M, Nazemi, TM, Bigdeloo L, Yoosefi M. Mucocutaneous findings in 100 children with Down syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:317-20.


9. Bilgili SG, Akdeniz N, Karadag AS, Akbayram S, Calka O, Ozkol HU. Mucocutaneous disorders in children with down syndrome: case-controlled study. Genet Couns. 2011;22:385-92.


10. Ercis M, Balci S, Atakan N. Dermatological manifestations of 71 Down syndrome children admitted to a clinical genetics unit. Clin Genet. 1996;50:317-20.


11. Asokan S, Muthu MS, Sivakumar, N. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India. Indian J Dent Res. 2008;3:230-35.


12. Butterworth T, Leoni EP, Beerman H, Wood MG, Strean, LP. Cheilitis of mongolism. J Invest Dermatol. 1960;35:347-52.


13. Kramer IR, Pindborg JJ, Bezroukov V, Infirri JS. Guide to epidemiology and diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases and conditions. World Health Organization. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1980;8:1-26.


14. Yarom N., Cantony U, Gorsky M. Prevalence of fissured tongue, geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis among Israeli adults of different ethnic origins. Dermatology. 2004;209:88-94.


15. Patil S, Kaswan S, Rahman F, Doni B. Prevalence of tongue lesions in the Indian population. J Clin Exp Dent. 2013;5:e128-32.
PMid:24455067 PMCid:PMC3892253


16. Al-Maweri SA, Al-Soneidar WA, Halboub ES. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2014;5:81-4.
PMid:24808701 PMCid:PMC4012124


17. Alonso Tosso A, Naval Gias L, Hernandez Vallejo G, Lucas Tomas M. [Cephalometric study of the cranial base in 133 cases of Down's syndrome]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1985;86:234-40.


18. Axe´ll T, Skoglund A. Chronic lip fissures; prevalence, pathology and treatment. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10:354-8.



19. Rosenquist B. Median lip fissures: etiology and suggested treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;72:10-4.



20. Parlak AH, Koybasi S, Yavuz T, Yesildal N, Anul H, Aydogan I, et al. Prevalence of oral lesions in 13- to 16-year-old students in Duzce, Turkey. Oral Dis. 2006; 12:553-8.



21. Carlstedt K, Krekmanova L, Dahllof G, Ericsson B, Braathen G, Modeer T. Oral carriage of Candida species in children and adolescents with Down's syndrome. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1996;6:95-100.


22. Al Habashneh R, Al-Jundi S, Khader Y, Nofel N. Oral health status and reasons for not attending dental care among 12- to 16-year-old children with Down syndrome in special needs centres in Jordan. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10:259-64.


23. Nualart Grollmus ZC, Morales Chávez MC, Silvestre Donat FJ. Periodontal disease associated to systemic genetic disorders. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:e211-5.