Shetty SB, Mahin-Syed-Ismail  P, Varghese S, Thomas-George B, Kandathil-Thajuraj P, Baby D, Haleem S, Sreedhar S, Devang-Divakar D. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2016;8(1):e71-7.





1. Hotwani K, Baliga S, Sharma K. Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants. J Complement Integr Med. 2014;11:233-51.



2. Shakthi Deve A, Sathish Kumar T, Kumaresan K, Rapheal VS. Extraction process optimization of polyphenols from Indian Citrus sinensis - as novel antiglycative agents in the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014;13:11.



3. Grosso G, Galvano F, Mistretta A, Marventano S, Nolfo F, Calabrese G, et al. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:157240.



4. Mehmood B, Dar KK, Ali S, Awan UA, Nayyer AQ, Ghous T, et al. Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015;28:231-9.


5. Akdemir Evrendilek G. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol. 2015;202:35-41.


6. Shimada A, Noda M, Matoba Y, Kumagai T, Kozai K, Sugiyama M. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children. Biosci Microbiota Food Health. 2015;34:29-36.
PMid:25918670 PMCid:PMC4405395


7. Nagarajappa R, Batra M, Sharda AJ, Asawa K, Sanadhya S, Daryani H, et al. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms - An In Vitro Comparative Study. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2015;13:341-8.



8. Khan UA, Rahman H, Qasim M, Hussain A, Azizllah A, Murad W, et al. Alkanna tinctoria leaves extracts: a prospective remedy against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:127.
PMid:25902854 PMCid:PMC4410581


9. Mistry KS, Sanghvi Z, Parmar G, Shah S. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study. Eur J Dent. 2014;8:172-7.
PMid:24966766 PMCid:PMC4054046


10. Nayak SS, Ankola AV, Metgud SC, Bolmal UK. An in vitro study to determine the effect of Terminalia chebula extract and its formulation on Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014;15:278-82.


11. Fine DH. Chemical agents to prevent and regulate plaque development. Periodontol 2000. 1995;8:87-107.


12. Varaldo PE. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing: an evergreen topic. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:1-4.


13. Mehta VV, Rajesh G, Rao A, Shenoy R, B H MP. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:ZC65-8.
PMid:25177642 PMCid:PMC4149148


14. Naderi NJ, Niakan M, Kharazi Fard MJ, Zardi S. Antibacterial activity of Iranian green and black tea on streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study. J Dent (Tehran). 2011;8:55-9.



15. Cowan M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12:564-82.
PMid:10515903 PMCid:PMC88925


16. Jeyaseelan EC, Jashothan PT. In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2:717-21.



17. Judaki A, Panahi J, Havasian MR, Tajbakhsh P, Roozegar MA. Study of the inhibitory effect of Quercus Coccifera's aqueous extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa In vitro. Bioinformation. 2014;10:689-92.
PMid:25512685 PMCid:PMC4261113


18. Shimada T. Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:1149-63.


19. Hashemi J, Platz A, Ueno T, Stierner U, Ringborg U, Hansson J. CDKN2A germ-line mutations in individuals with multiple cutaneous melanomas. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6864-7.


20. Just MJ, Recio MC, Giner RM, Cueller MJ, Manez S, Bilia AR, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of unusual lupine saponins from Bupleurum fruticescens. Planta Med. 1998;64:404-7.


21. Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M. Flavonoids - Potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochrome P450. Chemico-Biol Intern. 2002;139:1-21.



22. Alams K, Skaug N, Ahmad I. An in vitro antimicrobial comparison of miswak extract with commercially available non-alcohol mouthrinses. Int J Dent Hyg. 2005;3:18-24.