Almerich-Silla JM, Almiñana-Pastor PJ, Boronat-Catalá M, Bellot-Arcís C, Montiel-Company JM. Socioeconomic factors and severity of periodontal disease in adults (35-44 years). A cross sectional study. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(8):e988-94.






1. Armitage GC. Clinical evaluation of periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 1995;7:39-53.


2. Bravo M, Almerich JM, Ausina V, Avilés P, Blanco JM, Canorea E, et al. Encuesta de Salud Oral en Espa-a 2015. RCOE. 2016;21:8-48.


3. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol. 1999;4:1-6.


4. Highfield J. Diagnosis and classification of periodontal disease. Aust Dent J. 2009;54:S11-S26.


5. Löe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, Morrison E. Natural history of periodontal disease in man. Rapid, moderate and no loss of attachment in Sri Lankan laborers 14 to 46 years of age. J Clin Periodontol. 1986;13:431-40.


6. Badersten A, Nilveus R and Egelberg, J. Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy. VII Bleeding, Suppuration and Probing Depth in Sites with Probing Attachment Loss. J Clin Periodontol. 1985;12:432-40.


7. Lang NP, Joss A, Orsanic T, Gusberti FA, Siegrist BE. Bleeding on probing. A predictor of the progresión of periodontal disease? J Clin Periodontol. 1986;13:590-6.



8. Griffiths GS, Wilton JMA, Curtis MA, Maiden MFJ, Gillett IR, Wilson DT, et al. Detection of High-risk Groups and Individuals for Periodontal Diseases. Clinical Assessment of the Periodontium. J Clin Periodontol. 1988;15:403-10.


9. Philstrom BL. Periodontal risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment planning. Periodontol 2000. 2001;25:37–58.



10. Preber H, Bergström J. Occurrence of gingival bleeding in smoker and non-smoker patients. Acta Odontol Scand. 1985;43:315-20.


11. Socransky SS, Haffajee A, Cugini MA, Smith C, Kent Jr. R. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J Clin Periodontol. 1998;25:134-44.


12. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, Slade GD, Thornton-Evans GO, Borgnakke WS, et al. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2015;86:611-22.
PMid:25688694 PMCid:PMC4460825


13. Krustrup U, Petersen E. Periodontal conditions in 35-44 and 65-74-year-old adults in Denmark. Acta Odontol Scand. 2006;64:65-73.


14. Llodra, J, Bravo, M, Cort es, F. Encuesta de Salud Oral en Espa-a (2000). RCOE. 2002;7:1-57.


15. Bravo M, Casals E, Cortes F, Llodra J. Encuesta de Salud Oral en Espa-a 2005. RCOE. 2006;11:409-56.


16. Llodra J. Encuesta de salud oral en Espa-a 2010. RCOE. 2012;17:13-41.


17. Carasol M, Llodra JC, Fernandez-Meseguer A, Bravo M, Garcia-Margallo MT, Calvo-Bonacho E, et al. Periodontal conditions among employed adults in Spain. J Clin Periodontol. 2016;43:548-56.


18. Petersen, P. E. & Ogawa, H. The global burden of periodontal disease: towards integration with chronic disease prevention and control. Periodontol 2000. 2012;60:15-39.


19. Kassebaum NJ, Bernabe E, Dahiya M, Bhandari B, Murray CJ, Marcenes W. Global burden of severe periodontitis in 1990-2010: a systematic review and meta- regression. J Dent Res. 2014;93:1045-53.
PMid:25261053 PMCid:PMC4293771


20. Sheiham A, Netuveli GS. Periodontal diseases in Europe. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:104-21.


21. Zini A, Sgan-Cohen HD, Marcenes W. Socio-economic position, smoking, and plaque: a pathway to severe chronic periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:229-35.


22. Hermann P, Gera I, Borbely J, Fejerdy P, Madlena M. Periodontal health of an adult population in Hungary: findings of a national survey. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:449-57.


23. Holtfreter B, Schwahn, CH, Biffar R, Kocher TH. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in the study of health in Pomerania. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:114-23.


24. Prasanna HR, Chandan DN, Kripal K, Hari KR, Adarsh CM, Reddy TP. A cross-sectional study on the relationship between behavioral variables and economic status in periodontal disease among elderly individuals. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:699-702.


25. Boillot A, El Halabi B, Batty GD, Rangé H, Czernichow S, Bouchard P. Education as a predictor of chronic periodontitis: a systematic review with meta-analysis population-based studies. PLoS One. 2011;6:e21508.
PMid:21814546 PMCid:PMC3140980


26. Borrell LN, Beck JD, Heiss G. Socioeconomic disadvantage and periodontal disease: the Dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:332-9.
PMid:16380570 PMCid:PMC1470476


27. Genco RJ, Borgnakke WS. Risk factors for periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2013;62:59-94.


28. Beck JD, Caplan DJ, Preisser JS, Moss K. Reducing the bias of probing depth and attachment level estimates using random partial-mouth recording. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2006;34:1-10.