Kellesarian SV, Malignaggi VR, de Freitas PC, Ahmed HB, Javed F. Association between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and early childhood caries. A systematic review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(9):e1141-6.





1. Sherratt FC, Field JK, Marcus MW. Association between smoking and health outcomes in an economically deprived population: the Liverpool Lung Project. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017;71:806-10.


2. Agnihotri R, Gaur S. Implications of tobacco smoking on the oral health of older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14:526-40.


3. Edman K, Ohrn K, Nordstrom B, Holmlund A. Prevalence of dental caries and influencing factors, time trends over a 30-year period in an adult population. Epidemiological studies between 1983 and 2013 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74:385-92.


4. Hanioka T, Ojima M, Tanaka K. Daily smoking may independently predict caries development in adults. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2014;14:151-3.


5. Johnson NW, Bain CA. Tobacco and oral disease. EU-Working Group on Tobacco and Oral Health. Br Dent J. 2000;189:200-6.


6. BelstrÝm DHolmstrup PNielsen CHKirkby NTwetman SHeitmann BL, et al. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status. J Oral Microbiol. 2014;6.


7. Pereira PP, Da Mata FA, Figueiredo AC, de Andrade KR, Pereira MG. Maternal Active Smoking During Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight in the Americas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017;19:497-505.


8. Phillips JK, King SE, Bernstein IM, Skelly JM, Higgins ST. Associations of Maternal Obesity and Smoking Status with Perinatal Outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017:1-17.


9. Prunet C, Delnord M, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, Goffinet F, Blondel B. Risk factors of preterm birth in France in 2010 and changes since 1995: Results from the French National Perinatal Surveys. J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2017;46:19-28.


10. Harris BS, Bishop KC, Kemeny HR, Walker JS, Rhee E, Kuller JA. Risk Factors for Birth Defects. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2017;72:123-35.


11. Friedmann I, Dahdouh EM, Kugler P, Mimran G, Balayla J. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016:1-9.



12. Parviainen R, Auvinen J, Pokka T, Serlo W, Sinikumpu JJ. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with childhood bone fractures in offspring - A birth-cohort study of 6718 children. Bone. 2017;101:202-5.


13. Quinn PDRickert MEWeibull CEJohansson ALVLichtenstein PAlmqvist C, et al. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Severe Mental Illness in Offspring. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:589-96.

PMid:28467540 PMCid:PMC5539841


14. Balte P, Karmaus W, Roberts G, Kurukulaaratchy R, Mitchell F, Arshad H. Relationship between birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood and adolescent lung function: A path analysis. Respir Med. 2016;121:13-20.


15. Perret JLWalters HJohns DGurrin LBurgess JLowe A, et al. Mother's smoking and complex lung function of offspring in middle age: A cohort study from childhood. Respirology. 2016;21:911-9.


16. Shulman JD. Is there an association between low birth weight and caries in the primary dentition? Caries Res. 2005;39: 161-7.


17. Iida H, Auinger P, Billings RJ, Weitzman M. Association between infant breastfeeding and early childhood caries in the United States. Pediatrics. 2007;120: e944-952.


18. Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S. The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal household smoking on dental caries in young children. J Pediatr. 2009;155:410-5.


19. Majorana A, Cagetti MG, Bardellini E, et al. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:45.
PMid:24528500 PMCid:PMC3930287


20. Tanaka K, Miyake Y. Low birth weight, preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age are not associated with dental caries in young Japanese children. BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:38.
PMid:24731399 PMCid:PMC3989784


21. Tanaka S, Shinzawa M, Tokumasu H, Seto K, Tanaka S, Kawakami K. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study. Bmj. 2015;351:h5397.
PMid:26489750 PMCid:PMC4613892


22. Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Nagata C, Furukawa S, Arakawa M. Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children. Environ Res. 2015;143:148-53.


23. Bernabe E, MacRitchie H, Longbottom C, Pitts NB, Sabbah W. Birth Weight, Breastfeeding, Maternal Smoking and Caries Trajectories. J Dent Res. 2017;96:171-8.


24. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097.
PMid:19621072 PMCid:PMC2707599


25. Roberts C. Modelling patterns of agreement for nominal scales. Stat Med. 2008;27:810-30.


26. Wells G, Shea B, O'connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 2000.


27. Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): classifications, consequences, and preventive strategies. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30:40-3.


28. Javed F, Al-Kheraif AA, Rahman I, et al. Comparison of Clinical and Radiographic Periodontal Status Between Habitual Water-Pipe Smokers and Cigarette Smokers. J Periodontol. 2016;87:142-7.