Tirupathi S, SVSG N, Rajasekhar S, Nuvvula S. Comparative cariostatic efficacy of a novel Nano-silver fluoride varnish with 38% silver diamine fluoride varnish a double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Clin Exp Dent. 2019;11(2):e105-12.







1. Marinho VC, Worthington HV, Walsh T, Clarkson JE. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013:CD002279.


2. Mei ML, Chu CH, Lo EC, Samaranayake LP. Fluoride and silver concentrations of silver diammine fluoride solutions for dental use. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013;23:279-85.


3. Gao SS, Zhang S, Mei ML, Lo EC, Chu CH. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment - a systematic review. BMC Oral Health. 2016;16:12
PMid:26831727 PMCid:PMC4736084


4. Rosenblatt A, Stamford TC, Niederman R. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet". J Dent Res. 2009;88:116-25.


5. Besinis A, De Peralta T, Handy RD. The antibacterial effects of silver, titanium dioxide and silica dioxide nanoparticles compared to the dental disinfectant chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans using a suite of bioassays. Nanotoxicology. 2014;8:1-16.
PMid:23092443 PMCid:PMC3878355


6. Hernandez-Sierra JF, Salas-Lopez EK, Martinez-Gutierrez F, Ruiz F, Pierdant-Perez M, Mandeville P, et al. Bactericidal capacity of silver nanoparticles associated with Gantrez S-97 on Streptococcus mutans. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010;35:183-5.


7. Haghgoo R, Saderi H, Eskandari M, Haghshenas H, Rezvani M. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of conventional and nanosilver-containing varnishes on oral streptococci. J Dent. (Shiraz) 2014;15:57-62.


8. Santos VE Jr, Vasconcelos Filho A, Targino AG, Flores MA, Galembeck A, Caldas AF Jr, et al. A new "silver-bullet" to treat caries in children--nano silver fluoride: a randomised clinical trial. J Dent. 2014;42:945-51.


9. Targino AG, Flores MA, dos Santos Junior VE, de Godoy Bene Bezerra F, de Luna Freire H, Galembeck A, et al. An innovative approach to treating dental decay in children. A new anti-caries agent. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014;25:2041-7.


10. Mount GJ, Hume WR. A revised classification of carious lesions by site and size. Quintessence Int. 1997;28:301-3.


11. Burns J, Hollands K. Nano Silver Fluoride for preventing caries. Evid Based Dent. 2015;16:8-9.


12. Chu CH, Mei LEI, Seneviratne CJ, Lo ECM. Effects of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesions induced by Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012;22:2-10.


13. Mei ML, Ito L, Cao Y, Li Q, Chu C, Lo EC. The inhibitory effects of silver diamine fluorides on cysteine cathepsins. J Dent. 2014;42:329-35.


14. Chu CH, Lo EC. Microhardness of dentine in primary teeth after topical fluoride applications. J Dent. 2008;36:387-91.


15. Llodra JC, Rodriguez A, Ferrer B, Menardia V, Ramos T, Morato M. Efficacy of silver diamine fluoride for caries reduction in primary teeth and first permanent molars of schoolchildren: 36-month clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2005;84:721-4.


16. Lo EC, Chu CH, Lin HC. A community-based caries control program for pre-school children using topical fluorides: 18-month results. J Dent Res. 2001;80:2071-4.


17. Chu CH, Lo EC, Lin HC. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children. J Dent Res. 2002;81:767-70.


18. Duangthip D, Chu CH, Lo EC. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentine caries in preschool children by topical fluorides--18 month results. J Dent. 2016;44:57-63.


19. Milgrom PM, Tut OK, Mancl LA. Topical iodine and fluoride varnish effectiveness in the primary dentition: a quasi-experimental study. J Dent Child. 2011;78:143-7.


20. Tut OK, Milgrom PM. Topical iodine and fluoride varnish combined is more effective than fluoride varnish alone for protecting erupting first permanent molars: a retrospective cohort study. J Public Health Dent. 2010;70:249-52.
PMid:20337902 PMCid:PMC2894298


21. Baygin O, Tuzuner T, Kusgoz A, Senel AC, Tanriver M, Arslan I. Antibacterial effects of fluoride varnish compared with chlorhexidine plus fluoride in disabled children. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2014;12:373-82.


22. Chu CH, Gao SS, Li SK, Wong MC, Lo EC. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2015;25:1-16.


23. Ge L, Li Q, Wang M, Ouyang J, Li X, Xing MM. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014; 9: 2399–407.
PMid:24876773 PMCid:PMC4037247


24. Chan EL, Zhang C, Cheung GS. Cytotoxicity of a novel nano-silver particle endodontic irrigant. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2015;7:65-74.
PMid:26203279 PMCid:PMC4507457


25. Di Giulio M, Di Bartolomeo S, Di Campli E, Sancilio S, Marsich E, Travan A, et al. The effect of a silver nanoparticle polysaccharide system on streptococcal and saliva-derived biofilms. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:13615-25.
PMid:23812080 PMCid:PMC3742206


26. Besinis A, De Peralta T, Handy RD. Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine. Nanotoxicology. 2014;8:745-54.


27. Kasraei S, Sami L, Hendi S, Alikhani MY, Rezaei-Soufi L, Khamverdi Z. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Restor Dent Endod. 2014;39:109-14.
PMid:24790923 PMCid:PMC3978100


28. Li F, Weir MD, Chen J, Xu HH. Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity. Dent Mater. 2013;29:450-61.
PMid:23428077 PMCid:PMC3631003


29. Azarsina M, Kasraei S, Yousef-Mashouf R, Dehghani N, Shirinzad M. The antibacterial properties of composite resin containing nanosilver against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013;14:1014-18.


30. Suganya S, Ahila SC, Kumar BM, Kumar MV. Evaluation and comparison of anti-Candida effect of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate resin enforced with silver nanoparticles and conventional heat cure resins: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2014;25:204-7.


31. Besinis A, De Peralta T, Handy RD. The antibacterial effects of silver, titanium dioxide and silica dioxide nanoparticles compared to the dental disinfectant chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans using a suite of bioassays. Nanotoxicology. 2014;8:1-16.
PMid:23092443 PMCid:PMC3878355


32. Chávez-Andrade GM, Tanomaru-Filho M, Rodrigues EM, Gomes-Cornélio AL, Faria G, Bernardi MIB et al,. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated silver nanoparticles and farnesol as irrigating solutions. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;84:89-93.