Srisilapanan P, Roseman J, Likitsatian T. Clinical effect of toothpaste and mouth rinse containing zinc lactate on oral malodor reduction. J Clin Exp Dent. 2019;11(5):e346-52.






1. Kazor CE and Mitchell PM. Diversity of bacterial population on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:558-563.
PMid:12574246 PMCid:PMC149706


2. Saad S, Greenman J, Shaw H. Comparative effect of various commercially available mouthrinse formulations on oral malodor. Oral Disease. 2011;17:180-186.


3. Veerasha, KL, Bansal M, Bansal V. Halitosis: A frequently ignored social condition. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2011;1:9-13.
PMid:24478947 PMCid:PMC3894075


4. Suarez FL, Furne JK, Springfield J, Levitt MD. Morning breath odor: influence of treatments on sulfur gases. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1773–1777.


5. Takeshita T, Suzuki N, Nakano Y, Shimazaki Y, Yoneda M, Hirofuji T, Yamashita Y. Relationship between oral malodor and the global composition of indigenous bacterial populations in saliva. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2806-14.
PMid:20228112 PMCid:PMC2863426


6. Krespi YP, Shrime MG, Kacker A. The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compound–producing bacteria. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 2006;135:671-676.


7. Scully C, El-Maaytah M, Porter SR, Greenman J. Breath odor: aetiopathogenesis, assessment and management. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:287–293.


8. Tonzetich, J. and Johnson, PW. Chemical analysis of thiol, disulfide and total sulphur content of human saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1977;22:125–131.


9. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. Volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air from clinically healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 1992;27:233–238.


10. Quirynen M, Zhao H, van Steenberghe D. Review of the strategies for oral malodour. Clin Oral Invest. 2002;6:1–10.


11. Tonzetich J. Production and origin of oral malodour: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. J Periodontol. 1977;48:13–20.


12. Lourith N and Kanlayavattanakul M. Oral malodour and active ingradients for treatment. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2010;32:321-329.


13. Blom, T, Slot DE, Quirymen M, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of mouthrinses on oral malodor: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10:209-222.


14. Raangs GC, Winkel EG, van Winkelhoff AJ. In vitro antimicrobial effects of two antihalitosis mouth rinses on oral pathogens and human tongue microbiota. Int J Dent Hygiene. 2013;11:203-207.


15. Lim K, Mustapha A. Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphyloccus aureus on sliced roast beef by cetylpyridinium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite. Food Microbiology. 2007;24:89-94.


16. Rioboo M, Gracia V, Serrano J, O'Connor A, Sanz M. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of an antimicrobial mouth rinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride in patients with gingivitis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10:98-106.


17. Liu J, Ling J, Wu CD. Cetylpyridinium chloride suppresses gene expression associated with halitosis. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:1686-1691.


18. Young A, Jonski G, Rolla G. Inhibition of orally produced volatile sulfur compounds by zinc, chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium chloride – effect of concentration. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:400–404.


19. Waaler SM. The effect of some metal ions on volatile sulfur containing compounds originating from the oral cavity. Acta Odontol Scand. 1997; 55:261–264.


20. Young A, Jonski G, Rolla G, Waaler SM. Effects of metal salts on the oral production of volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC). J Clin Periodontol. 2001; 28:776–781.


21. Kleinberg I, Codipilly DM. Cysteine challenge testing: a powerful tool for examining oral malodour processes and treatments in vivo. Int Dent J. 2002;52:221–228.


22. Slot DE, De Geest S, van der Weijden FA, Quirynen M. Treatment of oral malodour. Medium-term efficacy of mechanical agents: a systematical review. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42(Suppl. 16): S303-S316.


23. Soares LG, Jonski G, Tinoco EMB, Young A. Short-term effect of strontium- and zinc-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses on volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2015;123:72-79.


24. Sterer N, Nuas S, Mizrahi B, Goldenberg C, Wei EI, Domb A, et al. Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation. J Dent. 2008;36:535-539.


25. Codipilly DP1, Kaufman HW, Kleinberg I. Use of a novel group of oral malodor measurements to evaluate an anti-oral malodor mouthrinse (TriOralTM) in humans. J Clin Dent. 2004;15:98-104.


26. Fedorowicz Z1, Aljufairi H, Nasser M, Outhouse TL, Pedrazzi V. Mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD006701.


27. Mendes L, Coimbra J, Pereira AL, Resende M, Pinto MG. Comparative effect of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and zinc on volatile sulphur compounds: a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Int J Dent Hyg. 2016;14:202-8.


28. Tangerman A, Winkell EG. The portable gas chromatograph OralChromaTM: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis Academic Center for Oral Health, Department of Periodontology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. J. Breath Res. 2008;2:017010.


29. Dudzik A, Chomyszyn - Gajewska M, Łazarz-Bartyzel K. An Evaluation of Halitosis using Oral Chroma™ Data Manager, Organoleptic Scores and Patients' Subjective Opinions. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7:6-11.
PMid:25878470 PMCid:PMC4385729