Janakiram C, Varghese N, Venkitachalam R, Joseph J, Vineetha K. Comparison of modified Bass, Fones and normal tooth brushing technique for the efficacy of plaque control in young adults- A randomized clinical trial. J Clin Exp Dent. 2020;12(2):e123-9.







1. Gambhir RS, Kaur A, Singh A, Sandhu ARS, Dhaliwal APS. Dental public health in India: An insight. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2016;5:747-51.
PMid:28348984 PMCid:PMC5353807


2. Per Axelsson, Odont D. Concepts and practice of plaque control. Pediatr Dent. 1981;3:101-13.


3. Patil SP, Patil PB, Kashetty MV. Effectiveness of different tooth brushing techniques on the removal of dental plaque in 6-8 year old children of Gulbarga. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2014;4:113-6.
PMid:25254196 PMCid:PMC4170543


4. Hedge S, Kakade AA, Ks R, Ms AK. Evaluation of plaque removal efficacy of two manual toothbrushes with different textures: a comparative analysis. J Oral Health Res. 2011.


5. Poyato-Ferrera M, Segura-Egea JJ, Bullón-Fernández P. Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal. Int J Dent Hyg. 2003;1:110-4.


6. Schlueter N, Klimek J, Saleschke G, Ganss C. Adoption of a toothbrushing technique: a controlled, randomised clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2010;14:99-106.


7. Arai T, Kinoshita S. A comparison of plaque removal by different toothbrushes and toothbrushing methods. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ. 1977;24:177-88.

PMid: 267517


8. Sangnes G. Effectiveness of vertical and horizontal toothbrushing techniques in the removal of plaque. II. Comparison of brushing by six-year-old children and their parents. ASDC J Dent Child. 1974;41:119-23.

PMid: 4594788


9. Rugg-Gunn AJ, Macgregor ID. A survey of toothbrushing behaviour in children and young adults. J Periodontal Res. 1978;13:382-9.


10. Sundell SO, Klein H. Toothbrushing behavior in children: a study of pressure and stroke frequency. Pediatr Dent. 1982;4:225-7.

PMid: 6963402


11. McClure DB. A comparison of toothbrushing technics for the preschool child. J Dent Child. 1966;33:205-10.

PMid: 5326838


12. Anaise JZ. The toothbrush in plaque removal. ASDC J Dent Child. 1975;42:186-9.

PMid: 125293


13. Curtis GH, McCall CM, Overaa HI. A Clinical Study of the Effectiveness of the Roll and Charters' Methods of Brushing Teeth. J Periodontol. 1957;28:277-80.


14. Frandsen AM, Barbano JP, Suomi JD, Chang JJ, Burke AD. The effectiveness of the Charters', scrub and roll methods of toothbrushing by professionals in removing plaque. Scand J Dent Res. 1970;78:459-63.


15. Shick RA, Ash MM. Evaluation of the Vertical Method of Toothbrushing. J Periodontol. 1961;32:346-53.


16. Hansen F, Gjermo P. The plaque-removing effect of four toothbrushing methods. Scand J Dent Res. 1971;79:502-6.

PMid: 5289846


17. Robinson E. A comparative evaluation of the Scrub and Bass Methods of toothbrushing with flossing as an adjunct (in fifth and sixth graders). Am J Public Health. 1976;66:1078-81.
PMid:984277 PMCid:PMC1653493


18. Wainwright J, Sheiham A. An analysis of methods of toothbrushing recommended by dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and in dental texts. Br Dent J. 2014;217:E5.


19. Harnacke D, Mitter S, Lehner M, Munzert J, Deinzer R. Improving oral hygiene skills by computer-based training: a randomized controlled comparison of the modified Bass and the Fones techniques. PloS One. 2012;7:e37072.
PMid:22629353 PMCid:PMC3357431


20. Lachin JM. Fallacies of last observation carried forward analyses. Clin Trials Lond Engl. 2016;13:161-8.
PMid:26400875 PMCid:PMC4785044


21. Saghazadeh M, Ashayeri N. The comparison between the effectiveness of six different tooth brushing methods on removing dental bacterial plaque. J Dent Med. 2004;17:26-38.

PMid: 2090158


22. Bergenholtz A, Gustafsson LB, Segerlund N, Hagberg C, Ostby N. Role of brushing technique and toothbrush design in plaque removal. Scand J Dent Res. 1984;92:344-51.


23. Muller-Bolla M, Courson F. Toothbrushing methods to use in children: a systematic review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11:341-7.

PMid: 24046823


24. Bergström J, Lavstedt S. An epidemiologic approach to toothbrushing and dental abrasion. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1979;7:57-64.


25. John Annett. On knowing how to do things: a theory of motor imagery. Cogn Brain Res. 1996;3:65-9.

PMid: 8713546


26. Smutkeeree A, Rojlakkanawong N, Yimcharoen V. A 6-month comparison of toothbrushing efficacy between the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods in visually impaired students. Int J Paediatr Dent Br Paedodontic Soc Int Assoc Dent Child. 2011;21:278-83.


27. Janakiram C, Ramanarayanan V, Joseph J, Sanjeevan V. Comparison of Plaque Removal Efficacy of Tooth Powder and Toothpaste in Young Adults in India: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2018;20:116-22.

PMid: 31522146