Mayta-Tovalino F, Diaz-Soriano A, Munive-Degregori A, Pérez-Vargas F, Luza S, Bocanegra R, Mauricio F. Proposal for a provisional protocol for the care and identification of dental transmission routes of COVID-19 in Latin America: A Literature review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2020;12(10):e979-90.






1. Cheng ZJ, Shan J. 2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know. Infection. 2020;48:155-163.
PMid:32072569 PMCid:PMC7095345


2. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497-506.



3. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323:1061-1069.
PMid:32031570 PMCid:PMC7042881


4. Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci. 2020;12:9.
PMid:32127517 PMCid:PMC7054527


5. Sabino-Silva R, Jardim ACG, Siqueira WL. Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clin Oral Investig. 2020;24:1619-1621.
PMid:32078048 PMCid:PMC7088419


6. Chen ZM, Fu JF, Shu Q, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World J Pediatr. 2020;16:240-246.
PMid:32026148 PMCid:PMC7091166


7. Ministerio de Salud.


8. Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, Cheng H, Deng T, Fan YP, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Mil Med Res. 2020;7:4.
PMid:32029004 PMCid:PMC7003341


9. General Office of National Health Committee. Office of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Notice on the issuance of a programme for the diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (Trial Version 4). 2020. Accessed 29 Jan 2020.


10. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1282:1-23.
PMid:25720466 PMCid:PMC4369385


11. Gorbalenya A, Enjuanes L, Ziebuhr J, Snijder E. Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. Virus Res. 2016;117:17-37.
PMid:16503362 PMCid:PMC7114179


12. Nakagawa K, Lokugamage KG, Makino S. in Advances in Virus Research (ed John Ziebuhr).2016;96:165-192.
PMid:27712623 PMCid:PMC5388242


13. Fan Y, Zhao K, Shi ZL, Zhou P. Bat coronaviruses in China. Viruses 2019;11:210.
PMid:30832341 PMCid:PMC6466186


14. Instituto Nacional de Salud.


15. Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172(9):577-582.
PMid:32150748 PMCid:PMC7081172


16. Cohen J. Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally.https ://www.scien cemag .org/news/2020/01/wuhan -seafo od-marke t-may-not-be-sourc e-novel -virus -sprea ding-globa lly. Accessed

17. She J, Jiang J, Ye L, Hu L, Bai C, Song Y. 2019 novel coronavirus of pneumonia in Wuhan, China: emerging attack and management strategies. Clin Transl Med. 2020;9:19.
PMid:32078069 PMCid:PMC7033263


18. Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology. 2018;23:130-137.
PMid:29052924 PMCid:PMC7169239


19. Chan JF, Lau SK, To KK, et al. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015;28:465-522.
PMid:25810418 PMCid:PMC4402954


20. Chan JFW, Kok KH, Zhu Z, et al. Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020;9:221-36.
PMid:31987001 PMCid:PMC7067204


21. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395:565-74.

PMid:32007145 PMCid:PMC7159086


22. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J,et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323:1061-1069.
PMid:32031570 PMCid:PMC7042881


23. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13

PMid:32007143 PMCid:PMC7135076


24. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1199-1207.
PMid:31995857 PMCid:PMC7121484


25. Zhang H, Kang Z, Gong H, Xu D, Wang J, Li Z, et al. The digestive system is a potential route of 2019-nCov infection: a bioinformatics analysis based on single-cell transcriptomes. bioRxiv 2020: 2020 2001;2030:927806.


26. Lu CW, Liu XF, Jia ZF. 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. Lancet. 2020;395:e39

PMid:32035510 PMCid:PMC7133551


27. Han Q, Lin Q, Jin S, You L. Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: A brief perspective from the front line. J Infect. 2020;80:373-377.
PMid:32109444 PMCid:PMC7102581


28. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:727-733.
PMid:31978945 PMCid:PMC7092803


29. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Gallego V, Escalera-Antezana JP, Mendez CA, Zambrano LI, Franco-Paredes C, et al. COVID-19 in Latin America: The implications of the first confirmed case in Brazil, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020;35:101613.
PMid:32126292 PMCid:PMC7129040


30. Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, van der Werf S, Brodt HR, Becker S, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1967-76.


31. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T, Emery S, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1953-66.


32. WHO. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). 2020.


33. Chan JFW, Kok KH, Zhu Z, Chu H, Kai-Wang To K, Yuan S, et al. Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020;9:221-36.
PMid:31987001 PMCid:PMC7067204


34. Yuan JS, Yun HM, Lan W, Wang W, Sullivan SG, Jia S, et al. A climatologic investigation of the SARS-CoV outbreak in Beijing. China Am J Infect Control. 2005;34:234-236.
PMid:16679182 PMCid:PMC7115332


35. Gilbert M, Pullano G, Pinotti F, Valdano E, Poletto C, Boelle PY, et al. Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study. Lancet. 2020;395:871-877.

PMid:32087820 PMCid:PMC7159277


36. Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Tami A, Grillet ME, Marquez M, Hernandez-Villena J, Escalona-Rodriguez MA, et al. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela as a Regional Public Health Threat in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25:625-32
PMid:30698523 PMCid:PMC6433037


37. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Diagnosis and treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia (version 5) Accessed 30 Jan 2020


38. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, Kai-Wang To K, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020;395:514-523

PMid:31986261 PMCid:PMC7159286


39. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquis S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:929-936.
PMid:32004427 PMCid:PMC7092802


40. Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa237.
PMid:32150618 PMCid:PMC7108130


41. Xu Z, Peng C, Shi Y, Zhu Z, Mu K, Wang X, et al. Nelfinavir was predicted to be a potential inhibitor of 2019-nCov main protease by an integrative approach combining homology modelling, molecular docking and binding free energy calculation. bioRxiv 2020. 2001;2027:921627 .


42. Lenkens M, de Wit H, Danser AH, Esselink AC, Horikx A, Ten Oever J, et al. Geneesmiddelen bij COVID-19 [Medication and comedication in COVID-19 patients]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2020;164:D4995.



43. To KK, Tsang OT, Chik-Yan Yip C, Chan KH, Wu TC, Man-Chun Chan J, et al. Consistent detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in saliva. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa149.



44. Belser JA, Rota PA, Tumpey TM. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2013;77, 144-156.
PMid:23471620 PMCid:PMC3591987


45. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:970-971.
PMid:32003551 PMCid:PMC7120970


46. Wax RS, Christian MD. Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients. Directives concrètes à l'intention des équipes de soins intensifs et d'anesthésiologie prenant soin de patients atteints du coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Can J Anaesth. 2020;67:568-576.
PMid:32052373 PMCid:PMC7091420


47. Cleveland JL, Gray SK, Harte JA, Robison VA, Moorman AC, Gooch BF. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens in US dental health care settings: 2016 update. J Am Dent Assoc. 2016;147:729-738.
PMid:27233680 PMCid:PMC5084444


48. Wei J, Li Y. Airborne spread of infectious agents in the indoor environment. Am J Infect Control. 2016;44:S102-S108.
PMid:27590694 PMCid:PMC7115322


49. Epidemiology Working Group, Strategy and Policy Working Group for NCIP Epidemic Response, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020;41:293-295.


50. Meng L, Hua F, Bian Z. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine. J Dent Res. 2020;99:481-487.
PMid:32162995 PMCid:PMC7140973


51. Patel A. Jernigan DB; 2019-nCoV CDC Response Team. Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020 [published correction appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 14;69(6):173]. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:140-146.
PMid:32027631 PMCid:PMC7004396


52. Samaranayake LP, Peiris M. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and dentistry: a retrospective view. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 2004;135:1292-1302.
PMid:15493394 PMCid:PMC7093872


53. Hu T, Li G, Zuo Y, Zhou X. Risk of hepatitis B virus transmission via dental handpieces and evaluation of an anti-suction device for prevention of transmission. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2007;28:80-82..


54. Sabogal Á, Asencios J, Robles A, Gamboa E, Rosas J, Ríos J, et al. Epidemiological Profile of the Pathologies of the Oral Cavity in a Peruvian Population: A 9-Year Retrospective Study of 18,639 Patients. ScientificWorldJournal. 2019;2019:2357013.
PMid:30853862 PMCid:PMC6377946


55. Silva O, Palomino S, Robles A, Ríos J, Mayta-Tovalino F. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Infection Control Measures in Stomatology Students in Lima, Peru. J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:8027130.
PMid:30298091 PMCid:PMC6157180