Linossier AG, Martinez B, Valenzuela CY. Quantitative interactions between Candida albicans and the mutans streptococci in patients with Down Syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2021 Jan 1;26 (1):e1-7.



1. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5721-32.

PMid:16272510 PMCid:PMC1287824

2. Human microbiome project consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature. 2012;486:207-14.

PMid:22699609 PMCid:PMC3564958

3. Hojo K, Nagaoka S, Ohshima T, Maeda N. Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm development. J Dent Res. 2009;88:982-90.


4. Jakubovics NS, Kolenbrander PE. The road to ruin: the formation of disease-associated oral biofilms. Oral Diseases. 2010;16:729-39.


5. Linossier A, Gajardo M, Olavarria J. Paleomicrobiological study in dental calculus: Streptococcus mutans. Scanning Microscopy. 1996;10:1005-13.


6. Lamfon H, Porter SR, Mccullough M, Pratten J. Formation of Candida albicans biofilms on non-shedding oral surfaces. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:465-71.


7. Zijnge V, Van Leeuwen BM, Degener JE, Abbas F, Thurnheer T, Gmür R, et al. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth. PLos One. 2010;5:e9321.

PMid:20195365 PMCid:PMC2827546

8. Baker JL, Bor B, Agnello M, Shi W, He X. Ecology of the oral microbiome: Beyond bacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2017;25:362-74.

PMid:28089325 PMCid:PMC5687246

9. Morales DK, Hogan DA. Candida albicans interactions with bacteria in the context of human health and Disease. Plos Pathog. 2010;6:e1000886.

PMid:20442787 PMCid:PMC2861711

10.Nakano K, Nomura R, Nakagawa I, Hamada S, Ooshima T. Demonstration of Streptococcus mutans with a cell wall polysaccharide specific to a new serotype, k, in the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:198-202.

PMid:14715753 PMCid:PMC321689

11. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human decay. Microbiol Rev. 1986;50:353-80.

PMid:3540569 PMCid:PMC373078

12. Devon LA, Hubertine MEW, JAMS J, Vicent MB, Brian MP, Mark ES, et al. Candida -Bacteria: interactions: Their impact on human disease. Am Soc Microbiol. 2016;4:1-19.


13. Duda TD, Angelo GL, Martins CC, Paiva SM, Pordeus IA, Borges-Oliveira AC. Association between dental caries and Down syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos One. 2015;10:1-7.

PMid:26086498 PMCid:PMC4472226

14. Cahill TJ, Baddour LM, Habid G, Hoen B, Salaun E, Pettersson GB, et al. Challenger in infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:325-44.


15. Nakano K, Yoshioka H, Shudo Y, Hata H, Toda K, Taniguchi K, et al. Detection of novel serotype k Streptococcus mutans in infective endocarditis patiens. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3313-17.

PMid:16954266 PMCid:PMC1594668

16. Nomura R, Naka S, Nemoto H, Inagaki S, Taniguchi K, Ooshima T, et al. Potential involvement of collagen-binding protein of Streptococcus mutans in infective endocarditis. Oral Dis. 2013;19:387-93.


17. Liu Y, Fillers SG. Candida albicans ALs; a multifunctional adhesin and invasin. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:168-73.

PMid:21115738 PMCid:PMC3067396

18. Izumi Y, Sugiyama S, Shinozuka O, Yamazaki T, Ohyama T, Ishikawa I. Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in Down's syndrome patiens and its relationship to periodontal destruction. J Periodontol. 1989;60:238-42.


19. Annerén G, Magnusson CG, Lilja G, Nordvall SL. Abnormal serum IgG subclass patten in children with Down's syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67:628-31.

PMid:1534650 PMCid:PMC1793728

20. Linossier A, Vargas A, Villegas R, Chimenos E. Quantitative relationship between salivary level of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in children with Down's syndrome. Medicina Oral. 2002;7:284-92.


21. Linossier A, Valenzuela CY, Toledo H. Difference of the oral colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group in children and adolescents with Down syndrome, mental retardation and normal control. Med Oral Patol Cir Bucal. 2008;13:E536-9.


22. Van Palenstein Helderman WH, Ijsseldijk M, Huis in't Veld JH. A selective medium for the two major subgroup of bacterium Streptococcus mutans isolated from human dental plaque and saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28:599-60.


23. Linossier A, Vargas A, Zillmann G, Arriagada M, Rojas R, Villegas R. A semi-quantitative method to assess oral infections with Streptococci mutans in preschool Chilean children. Rev Méd Chile. 2003;131:412-18.


24. Hamada S, Masuda N, Ooshima T, Sobue S, Kotani S. Epidemiological survey of Streptococcus mutans among Japanese children.Identification and serological typing of the isolated strain. JPN Microbiol. 1976;20:33-4.


25. Raja M, Hannan KA. Association of oral candida carriage with dental caries in Children. Caries Res. 2010;44:272-6.


26. Carlstedt K, Krekmanova L,Krom BP, Dahllöf G, Ericsson B, Braathen G, Modeer T. Oral carriage of Candida species in children and adolescents with Down's. Int J Paediatric Dent.1996;6:95-00.


27. Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral Candidiasis. PostGrad Med J. 2002;78:455-9.

PMid:12185216 PMCid:PMC1742467

28.Janus MM, Crielaard W, Volgenant CMC, Van der ven MH, Brandt BW. Candida albicans alter the bacterial microbiome of early in vitro oral biofilm. J Oral Microbiol. 2017;9:1270613.

PMid:28326152 PMCid:PMC5328388

29. Willems MW, Kos K, Jabra-Risk MA, Krom BP. Candida albicans in oral biofilms could prevent caries. Pathog. Dis. 2016;74:ftw039.


30. Falsetta Ml, Klein M, Colonne PM, Scott-Anne K, Gregoire S, Hua Pai Ch, et al. Symbiotic relations between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans synergizes virulences of plaque biofilms In vivo. Infect Immun. 2014;82:1968-81.

PMid:24566629 PMCid:PMC3993459